đź“… Webinar - Delivering Security on Your Terms: An Intro to Self-Hosted

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đź“… Webinar - Delivering Security on Your Terms: An Intro to Self-Hosted

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My OpenSSH Private Key leaked! What should I do?

What is a OpenSSH Private Key and how it is used?

An OpenSSH Private Key is a cryptographic key used for authentication when connecting to a server using the SSH protocol. It is kept secret and should be securely stored to prevent unauthorized access.

OpenSSH Private Key is used for:

  • Authentication: The private key is used to authenticate the user to the server without the need for a password, providing a more secure and convenient way to access the server.
  • Encryption: The private key is used to encrypt data sent between the client and server, ensuring that the communication remains confidential and secure.
  • Digital Signatures: The private key is used to create digital signatures, which can be used to verify the authenticity and integrity of messages or files exchanged between parties.

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1. Code snippets to prevent OpenSSH Private Key hardcoding using environment variables

Using environment variables for storing OpenSSH Private Keys in your code can be considered secure for the following reasons:

  • Environment variables are not stored directly in your code or version control system, reducing the risk of accidental exposure.
  • Environment variables are stored outside of your codebase and can be managed separately, allowing for better control and security.
  • Environment variables can be easily encrypted or hidden from unauthorized access, providing an additional layer of protection for sensitive information.
  • Using environment variables promotes the practice of separating configuration from code, which is a good security practice in general.

How to secure your secrets using environment variables

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2. Code snippet to prevent OpenSSH Private Key hardcoding using AWS Secrets Manager

Using AWS Secrets Manager to manage OpenSSH Private Keys is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the OpenSSH Private Key from AWS Secrets Manager.

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3. Code snippet to prevent OpenSSH Private Key hardcoding using HashiCorp Vault

Using HashiCorp Vault for managing OpenSSH Private Keys is a great way to enhance security. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages for securely handling a OpenSSH Private Key using HashiCorp Vault.

Remember to replace the VAULT_ADDR and VAULT_TOKEN with your Vault server address and authentication token. The snippets assume that the OpenSSH Private Key is stored under the api_key field within Vault. The specifics of the Vault path and field names should be adjusted to match your Vault setup.

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4. Code snippet to prevent OpenSSH Private Key hardcoding using CyberArk Conjur

Using CyberArk Conjur to manage OpenSSH Private Key is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the OpenSSH Private Key from CyberArk Conjur.

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How to generate a OpenSSH Private Key?

To generate an OpenSSH Private Key, follow these steps:

  1. Open a terminal window on your computer.
  2. Enter the following command to generate a new SSH key pair:
    ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "your_email@example.com"
  3. Press Enter and you will be prompted to choose the location to save the key pair.
  4. Optionally, you can also set a passphrase to add an extra layer of security to your private key.
  5. Once the key pair is generated, you will have an OpenSSH Private Key (usually named id_rsa) and a corresponding Public Key (usually named id_rsa.pub) in the specified location.

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My OpenSSH Private Key leaked, what are the possible reasons?

There are several reasons why an OpenSSH Private Key might have been leaked:

  • Improper storage: Storing the private key in a location that is accessible to unauthorized users or in a publicly accessible repository can lead to leaks.
  • Weak password protection: If the private key is protected by a weak or easily guessable password, it can be compromised through brute force attacks.
  • Sharing the key: Sharing the private key with unauthorized individuals or including it in code repositories can increase the risk of leakage.
  • Accidental exposure: Accidentally including the private key in code snippets, logs, or other public resources can lead to unintended leaks.
  • Phishing attacks: Falling victim to phishing attacks or social engineering tactics can result in the private key being stolen.

What are the risks of leaking a OpenSSH Private Key

When it comes to OpenSSH Private Keys, developers must understand the critical risks associated with leaking such sensitive information. Here are some specific risks to consider:

  • Unauthorized Access: If an OpenSSH Private Key is leaked, unauthorized individuals may gain access to servers, systems, and sensitive data.
  • Data Breaches: Leaking an OpenSSH Private Key can lead to data breaches, compromising the confidentiality and integrity of data stored on servers.
  • Reputation Damage: A security incident resulting from a leaked OpenSSH Private Key can damage the reputation of the organization and erode trust with customers and stakeholders.
  • Financial Loss: In the event of a security breach caused by a leaked OpenSSH Private Key, organizations may incur financial losses due to legal fees, regulatory fines, and remediation costs.
  • Compromised Infrastructure: Leaking an OpenSSH Private Key can allow attackers to compromise the entire infrastructure, leading to further security incidents and disruptions.

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OpenSSH Private Key security best practices

  • Avoid embedding the secret directly in your code. Instead, use environment variables or secrets managers‍
  • Secure storage: store the OpenSSH Private Key in a secure location, such as a password manager or a secrets management service.
  • Regular rotation: periodically rotate the API key to minimize the risk of long-term exposure.
  • Restrict permissions: apply the principle of least privilege by only granting the key the minimum necessary permissions.
  • Monitor usage: regularly check the usage logs for any unusual activity or unauthorized access attempts.
  • Implement access controls: limit the number of users who have access to the secret and enforce strong authentication measures.
  • Use a secrets manager: utilize secret management tools like CyberArk or AWS Secrets Manager for enhanced security.

By adhering to the best practices, you can significantly reduce the risk associated with OpenSSH Private Key usage and improve the overall security of your OpenSSH Private Key implementations.

Exposing secrets on GitHub: What to do after leaking Credential and API keys

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OpenSSH Private Key leak remediation: what to do

What to do if you expose a secret: How to stay calm and respond to an incident [cheat sheet included]

How to check if OpenSSH Private Key was used by malicious actors

  • Review Access Logs: Check the access logs of your OpenSSH Private Key account for any unauthorized access or unusual activity. Pay particular attention to access from unfamiliar IP addresses (if you haven’t set up a specific allow list) or at odd hours.
  • Monitor Usage Patterns: Look for anomalies in the usage patterns, such as unexpected spikes in data access or transfer.
  • Check Active Connections and Operations: Review the list of active connections and recent operations on your database. Unusual or unauthorized operations might indicate malicious use.
  • Audit API Usage: If possible, audit the usage of your API key through any logging or monitoring services you have integrated with OpenSSH Private Key. This can give insights into any unauthorized use of your key.

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Steps to revoke the OpenSSH Private Key

Generate a new OpenSSH Private Key:

  • Log into your OpenSSH Private Key account.
  • Navigate to the API section and generate a new API key.

Update Services with the new key:

  • Replace the compromised key with the new key in all your services that use this API key.
  • Ensure all your applications and services are updated with the new key before deactivating the old one.

Deactivate the old OpenSSH Private Key:

  • Once the new key is in place and everything is functioning correctly, deactivate the old API key.
  • This can typically be done from the same section where you generated the new key.

Monitor after key rotation:

  • After deactivating the old key, monitor your systems closely to ensure that all services are running smoothly and that there are no unauthorized access attempts.

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How to understand which services will stop working

  • Inventory of services: keep an inventory of all services and applications that utilize your OpenSSH Private Key.
  • Communication and documentation: Ensure that your team is aware of which services are dependent on the key. Maintain documentation for quick reference.
  • Testing: before deactivating the old key, test your services with the new key in a staging environment. This helps in identifying any services that might face issues post rotation.
  • Fallback strategies: Have a fallback or emergency plan in case a critical service fails after the key rotation. This might include temporary measures or quick rollback procedures.

In summary, the remediation process involves identifying potential misuse, carefully rotating the key, and ensuring minimal disruption to services. Being proactive and having a well-documented process can greatly reduce the risks associated with a compromised API key.

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What about other secrets?

GitGuardian helps developers keep 350+ types of secrets out of source code. GitGuardian’s automated secrets detection and remediation solution secure every step of the development lifecycle, from code to cloud:

  • On developer workstations with git hooks (pre-commit and pre-push);
  • On code sharing platforms like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket;
  • In CI environments (Circle CI, Travis CI, Jenkins CI, GitHub Actions, and many more);
  • In Docker images.

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Environment Variables
Environment Variables
Environment Variables

charge

nullable string

For card errors, the ID of the failed charge.

payment_method_type

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

doc_url

nullable string

A URL to more information about the error code reported.

request_log_url

nullable string

A URL to the request log entry in your dashboard.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

payment_intent

nullable object

The PaymentIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a PaymentIntent.

setup_intent

nullable object

The SetupIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a SetupIntent.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

CLIENT LIBRARIES

$ gem install stripe
$ pip install stripe
$ composer require stripe/stripe-php
MAVEN
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.stripe</groupId>
  <artifactId>stripe-java</artifactId>
  <version>24.16.0</version>
</dependency>

GRADLE
compile "com.stripe:stripe-java:24.16.0"
$ npm install --save stripe
$ go get github.com/stripe/stripe-go/v76
$ nuget install Stripe.net
SHOW
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