đź“… Webinar - Delivering Security on Your Terms: An Intro to Self-Hosted

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đź“… Webinar - Delivering Security on Your Terms: An Intro to Self-Hosted

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My Rails Master Key leaked! What should I do?

What is a Rails Master Key and how it is used?

The Rails Master Key is a secret encryption key used in Ruby on Rails applications to encrypt and decrypt credentials stored in the credentials.yml.enc file.

When it comes to understanding the Rails Master Key, developers should be aware of the following main use cases:

  • Granting access to encrypted credentials: The Rails Master Key is used to decrypt and access sensitive information stored in the credentials.yml.enc file, such as API keys, database passwords, and other secrets required by the application.
  • Enabling secure configuration management: By securely storing the Rails Master Key, developers can ensure that only authorized individuals have access to the encrypted credentials, preventing unauthorized access to sensitive data.
  • Facilitating secure deployment processes: The Rails Master Key plays a crucial role in ensuring a smooth and secure deployment process, as it allows the application to access and utilize the encrypted credentials during runtime without exposing them in plain text.

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1. Code snippets to prevent Rails Master Key hardcoding using environment variables

Using environment variables for the Rails Master Key in your code is a secure practice for the following reasons:

  • Environment variables are not stored in your codebase or version control system, reducing the risk of exposure.
  • They can be easily managed and updated without having to modify your code, making it more convenient and secure.
  • Access to environment variables can be restricted to specific users or services, enhancing security measures.
  • In case of a security breach, changing the environment variable is a quick and effective way to mitigate the risk.

How to secure your secrets using environment variables

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2. Code snippet to prevent Rails Master Key hardcoding using AWS Secrets Manager

Using AWS Secrets Manager to manage Rails Master Keys is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the Rails Master Key from AWS Secrets Manager.

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3. Code snippet to prevent Rails Master Key hardcoding using HashiCorp Vault

Using HashiCorp Vault for managing Rails Master Keys is a great way to enhance security. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages for securely handling a Rails Master Key using HashiCorp Vault.

Remember to replace the VAULT_ADDR and VAULT_TOKEN with your Vault server address and authentication token. The snippets assume that the Rails Master Key is stored under the api_key field within Vault. The specifics of the Vault path and field names should be adjusted to match your Vault setup.

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4. Code snippet to prevent Rails Master Key hardcoding using CyberArk Conjur

Using CyberArk Conjur to manage Rails Master Key is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the Rails Master Key from CyberArk Conjur.

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How to generate a Rails Master Key?

To generate a Rails Master Key, follow these steps:

  1. Open your Rails application in the terminal.
  2. Run the following command to generate a new master key:
  3. rails credentials:edit
  4. This will open the credentials file in your default text editor.
  5. Save and close the file, and a new master key will be generated and stored in the config/master.key file.

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My Rails Master Key leaked, what are the possible reasons?

There are several reasons why a Rails Master Key might have been leaked:

  • Improper storage: If the Master Key is stored in a public repository or shared insecurely, it can be easily accessed by unauthorized individuals.
  • Weak access controls: If there are weak access controls in place, such as using default or easily guessable passwords, the Master Key could be compromised.
  • Insufficient logging and monitoring: Without proper logging and monitoring in place, it may be difficult to detect unauthorized access to the Master Key.
  • Human error: Mistakes such as accidentally sharing the Master Key or misconfiguring access controls can also lead to its leakage.

What are the risks of leaking a Rails Master Key

Developers must understand the critical importance of keeping the Rails Master Key secure at all times. Here are the risks associated with leaking a Rails Master Key:

  • Exposure of sensitive information: The Rails Master Key is used to decrypt encrypted credentials in Rails applications. If it is leaked, attackers could potentially gain access to sensitive information such as database credentials, API keys, and other secrets stored in the credentials file.
  • Compromise of user data: With access to sensitive information, attackers could compromise user data stored in the application, leading to privacy violations and potential legal consequences.
  • Unauthorized access: Leaking the Rails Master Key could allow attackers to gain unauthorized access to the application, potentially leading to data breaches, financial losses, and damage to the organization's reputation.
  • Impact on compliance: Depending on the nature of the leaked information, the organization may be in violation of regulatory requirements such as GDPR, HIPAA, or PCI DSS, resulting in fines and legal actions.

It is crucial for developers to follow best practices for secret management and ensure that the Rails Master Key is securely stored and only accessible to authorized personnel. Regularly reviewing and updating security measures can help mitigate the risks associated with leaking sensitive information.

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Rails Master Key security best practices

  • Avoid embedding the secret directly in your code. Instead, use environment variables or secrets managers‍
  • Secure storage: store the Rails Master Key in a secure location, such as a password manager or a secrets management service.
  • Regular rotation: periodically rotate the API key to minimize the risk of long-term exposure.
  • Restrict permissions: apply the principle of least privilege by only granting the key the minimum necessary permissions.
  • Monitor usage: regularly check the usage logs for any unusual activity or unauthorized access attempts.
  • Implement access controls: limit the number of users who have access to the secret and enforce strong authentication measures.
  • Use a secrets manager: utilize secret management tools like CyberArk or AWS Secrets Manager for enhanced security.

By adhering to the best practices, you can significantly reduce the risk associated with Rails Master Key usage and improve the overall security of your Rails Master Key implementations.

Exposing secrets on GitHub: What to do after leaking Credential and API keys

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Rails Master Key leak remediation: what to do

What to do if you expose a secret: How to stay calm and respond to an incident [cheat sheet included]

How to check if Rails Master Key was used by malicious actors

  • Review Access Logs: Check the access logs of your Rails Master Key account for any unauthorized access or unusual activity. Pay particular attention to access from unfamiliar IP addresses (if you haven’t set up a specific allow list) or at odd hours.
  • Monitor Usage Patterns: Look for anomalies in the usage patterns, such as unexpected spikes in data access or transfer.
  • Check Active Connections and Operations: Review the list of active connections and recent operations on your database. Unusual or unauthorized operations might indicate malicious use.
  • Audit API Usage: If possible, audit the usage of your API key through any logging or monitoring services you have integrated with Rails Master Key. This can give insights into any unauthorized use of your key.

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Steps to revoke the Rails Master Key

Generate a new Rails Master Key:

  • Log into your Rails Master Key account.
  • Navigate to the API section and generate a new API key.

Update Services with the new key:

  • Replace the compromised key with the new key in all your services that use this API key.
  • Ensure all your applications and services are updated with the new key before deactivating the old one.

Deactivate the old Rails Master Key:

  • Once the new key is in place and everything is functioning correctly, deactivate the old API key.
  • This can typically be done from the same section where you generated the new key.

Monitor after key rotation:

  • After deactivating the old key, monitor your systems closely to ensure that all services are running smoothly and that there are no unauthorized access attempts.

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How to understand which services will stop working

  • Inventory of services: keep an inventory of all services and applications that utilize your Rails Master Key.
  • Communication and documentation: Ensure that your team is aware of which services are dependent on the key. Maintain documentation for quick reference.
  • Testing: before deactivating the old key, test your services with the new key in a staging environment. This helps in identifying any services that might face issues post rotation.
  • Fallback strategies: Have a fallback or emergency plan in case a critical service fails after the key rotation. This might include temporary measures or quick rollback procedures.

In summary, the remediation process involves identifying potential misuse, carefully rotating the key, and ensuring minimal disruption to services. Being proactive and having a well-documented process can greatly reduce the risks associated with a compromised API key.

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What about other secrets?

GitGuardian helps developers keep 350+ types of secrets out of source code. GitGuardian’s automated secrets detection and remediation solution secure every step of the development lifecycle, from code to cloud:

  • On developer workstations with git hooks (pre-commit and pre-push);
  • On code sharing platforms like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket;
  • In CI environments (Circle CI, Travis CI, Jenkins CI, GitHub Actions, and many more);
  • In Docker images.

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Environment Variables
Environment Variables
Environment Variables

charge

nullable string

For card errors, the ID of the failed charge.

payment_method_type

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

doc_url

nullable string

A URL to more information about the error code reported.

request_log_url

nullable string

A URL to the request log entry in your dashboard.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

payment_intent

nullable object

The PaymentIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a PaymentIntent.

setup_intent

nullable object

The SetupIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a SetupIntent.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

CLIENT LIBRARIES

$ gem install stripe
$ pip install stripe
$ composer require stripe/stripe-php
MAVEN
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.stripe</groupId>
  <artifactId>stripe-java</artifactId>
  <version>24.16.0</version>
</dependency>

GRADLE
compile "com.stripe:stripe-java:24.16.0"
$ npm install --save stripe
$ go get github.com/stripe/stripe-go/v76
$ nuget install Stripe.net
SHOW
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