Gartner®: Avoid Mobile Application Security Pitfalls

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Gartner®: Avoid Mobile Application Security Pitfalls

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My Username Password leaked! What should I do?

What is a Username Password and how it is used?

Username: The username is a unique identifier used to authenticate a user's identity when accessing a system or application.

Password: A password is a confidential string of characters that is known only to the user, used to verify their identity and grant access to a system or application.

When it comes to Username Password, developers should understand the main use cases:

  • Authentication: The primary use of Username Password is for authenticating users, allowing them to access restricted resources or perform actions within an application.
  • Authorization: Username Password is also used to determine the level of access a user has within an application, such as different permissions or roles.
  • Secure Communication: Username Password can be used to establish secure communication between different systems or services, ensuring that only authorized parties can exchange information.

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1. Code snippets to prevent Username Password hardcoding using environment variables

Using environment variables for storing sensitive information like usernames and passwords in code is considered secure for the following reasons:

  • Environment variables are not hard-coded in the codebase, reducing the risk of accidental exposure through code repositories or other means.
  • Environment variables are stored outside of the codebase and are not typically accessible to users or external parties, adding an extra layer of security.
  • Environment variables can be easily managed and updated without the need to modify the code, making it simpler to rotate credentials regularly for better security.
  • Environment variables are commonly used in production environments, making it a widely accepted practice for securing sensitive information.

How to secure your secrets using environment variables

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2. Code snippet to prevent Username Password hardcoding using AWS Secrets Manager

Using AWS Secrets Manager to manage Username Passwords is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the Username Password from AWS Secrets Manager.

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3. Code snippet to prevent Username Password hardcoding using HashiCorp Vault

Using HashiCorp Vault for managing Username Passwords is a great way to enhance security. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages for securely handling a Username Password using HashiCorp Vault.

Remember to replace the VAULT_ADDR and VAULT_TOKEN with your Vault server address and authentication token. The snippets assume that the Username Password is stored under the api_key field within Vault. The specifics of the Vault path and field names should be adjusted to match your Vault setup.

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4. Code snippet to prevent Username Password hardcoding using CyberArk Conjur

Using CyberArk Conjur to manage Username Password is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the Username Password from CyberArk Conjur.

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How to generate a Username Password?

To generate a username and password for a user, developers can follow these steps:

  1. Generate a unique username: This can be based on the user's name, email address, or any other unique identifier. It's important to ensure that the username is unique and not already in use by another user.
  2. Create a secure password: Use a password generator to create a strong and secure password for the user. The password should be a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters to make it difficult to guess.
  3. Store the username and password securely: It's crucial to store the username and password in a secure manner, such as hashing the password before saving it to the database. This helps protect the user's information in case of a data breach.

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My Username Password leaked, what are the possible reasons?

There are several reasons why a Username Password might have been leaked:

  • Weak or easily guessable passwords
  • Phishing attacks targeting users
  • Malware or keyloggers on user's devices capturing login credentials
  • Database breaches or leaks from the service provider
  • Sharing passwords with unauthorized individuals
  • Using the same password across multiple accounts

What are the risks of leaking a Username Password

As a security trainer, it is important to emphasize the risks associated with leaking a Username and Password specific to that Username. Developers may not always be fully aware of the potential consequences of such a breach, so it is crucial to educate them on the following points:

  • Unauthorized Access: If a Username and Password pair is leaked, unauthorized individuals may gain access to sensitive information or systems.
  • Data Breaches: Leaked credentials can lead to data breaches, exposing personal or confidential information to malicious actors.
  • Identity Theft: Cybercriminals can use stolen credentials to impersonate users, leading to identity theft and potential financial losses.
  • Reputation Damage: A security incident resulting from leaked credentials can damage the reputation of the organization and erode customer trust.
  • Legal Consequences: Depending on the nature of the breach and the data exposed, there may be legal implications and regulatory fines to contend with.

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Username Password security best practices

  • Avoid embedding the secret directly in your code. Instead, use environment variables or secrets managers
  • Secure storage: store the Username Password in a secure location, such as a password manager or a secrets management service.
  • Regular rotation: periodically rotate the API key to minimize the risk of long-term exposure.
  • Restrict permissions: apply the principle of least privilege by only granting the key the minimum necessary permissions.
  • Monitor usage: regularly check the usage logs for any unusual activity or unauthorized access attempts.
  • Implement access controls: limit the number of users who have access to the secret and enforce strong authentication measures.
  • Use a secrets manager: utilize secret management tools like CyberArk or AWS Secrets Manager for enhanced security.

By adhering to the best practices, you can significantly reduce the risk associated with Username Password usage and improve the overall security of your Username Password implementations.

Exposing secrets on GitHub: What to do after leaking Credential and API keys

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Username Password leak remediation: what to do

What to do if you expose a secret: How to stay calm and respond to an incident [cheat sheet included]

How to check if Username Password was used by malicious actors

  • Review Access Logs: Check the access logs of your Username Password account for any unauthorized access or unusual activity. Pay particular attention to access from unfamiliar IP addresses (if you haven’t set up a specific allow list) or at odd hours.
  • Monitor Usage Patterns: Look for anomalies in the usage patterns, such as unexpected spikes in data access or transfer.
  • Check Active Connections and Operations: Review the list of active connections and recent operations on your database. Unusual or unauthorized operations might indicate malicious use.
  • Audit API Usage: If possible, audit the usage of your API key through any logging or monitoring services you have integrated with Username Password. This can give insights into any unauthorized use of your key.

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Steps to revoke the Username Password

Generate a new Username Password:

  • Log into your Username Password account.
  • Navigate to the API section and generate a new API key.

Update Services with the new key:

  • Replace the compromised key with the new key in all your services that use this API key.
  • Ensure all your applications and services are updated with the new key before deactivating the old one.

Deactivate the old Username Password:

  • Once the new key is in place and everything is functioning correctly, deactivate the old API key.
  • This can typically be done from the same section where you generated the new key.

Monitor after key rotation:

  • After deactivating the old key, monitor your systems closely to ensure that all services are running smoothly and that there are no unauthorized access attempts.

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How to understand which services will stop working

  • Inventory of services: keep an inventory of all services and applications that utilize your Username Password.
  • Communication and documentation: Ensure that your team is aware of which services are dependent on the key. Maintain documentation for quick reference.
  • Testing: before deactivating the old key, test your services with the new key in a staging environment. This helps in identifying any services that might face issues post rotation.
  • Fallback strategies: Have a fallback or emergency plan in case a critical service fails after the key rotation. This might include temporary measures or quick rollback procedures.

In summary, the remediation process involves identifying potential misuse, carefully rotating the key, and ensuring minimal disruption to services. Being proactive and having a well-documented process can greatly reduce the risks associated with a compromised API key.

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What about other secrets?

GitGuardian helps developers keep 350+ types of secrets out of source code. GitGuardian’s automated secrets detection and remediation solution secure every step of the development lifecycle, from code to cloud:

  • On developer workstations with git hooks (pre-commit and pre-push);
  • On code sharing platforms like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket;
  • In CI environments (Circle CI, Travis CI, Jenkins CI, GitHub Actions, and many more);
  • In Docker images.

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Environment Variables
Environment Variables
Environment Variables

charge

nullable string

For card errors, the ID of the failed charge.

payment_method_type

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

doc_url

nullable string

A URL to more information about the error code reported.

request_log_url

nullable string

A URL to the request log entry in your dashboard.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
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child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

payment_intent

nullable object

The PaymentIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a PaymentIntent.

setup_intent

nullable object

The SetupIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a SetupIntent.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

CLIENT LIBRARIES

$ gem install stripe
$ pip install stripe
$ composer require stripe/stripe-php
MAVEN
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.stripe</groupId>
  <artifactId>stripe-java</artifactId>
  <version>24.16.0</version>
</dependency>

GRADLE
compile "com.stripe:stripe-java:24.16.0"
$ npm install --save stripe
$ go get github.com/stripe/stripe-go/v76
$ nuget install Stripe.net
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