đź“… Webinar - Delivering Security on Your Terms: An Intro to Self-Hosted

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My Mailgun Primary API Key leaked! What should I do?

What is a Mailgun Primary API Key and how it is used?

The Mailgun Primary API Key is a unique alphanumeric string that serves as the main authentication token for accessing the Mailgun API. It is used to securely send and receive emails through the Mailgun service.

When it comes to the Mailgun Primary API Key, developers should understand its main use cases:

  • Authentication: The Mailgun Primary API Key is used to authenticate and authorize access to Mailgun's API services. It acts as a secret token that verifies the identity of the application or user making API requests.
  • Sending Emails: One of the primary use cases of the Mailgun Primary API Key is to send emails through the Mailgun API. Developers can use this key to integrate email sending functionality into their applications, allowing them to easily send transactional emails, newsletters, and other types of email communication.
  • Monitoring and Analytics: The Mailgun Primary API Key can also be used to access monitoring and analytics data provided by Mailgun. Developers can use this key to track email delivery metrics, monitor performance, and gather insights into the effectiveness of their email campaigns.

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1. Code snippets to prevent Mailgun Primary API Key hardcoding using environment variables

Using environment variables for storing sensitive information like Mailgun Primary API Key is a secure practice because:

  • Environment variables are not hard-coded in the codebase, reducing the risk of exposure in case of a code leak.
  • Environment variables are stored outside of the code repository, making it harder for unauthorized users to access them.
  • Environment variables can be easily managed and rotated without the need to modify the code, enhancing security and compliance.
  • Environment variables provide an additional layer of security as they are typically accessed through secure mechanisms by the operating system.

How to secure your secrets using environment variables

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2. Code snippet to prevent Mailgun Primary API Key hardcoding using AWS Secrets Manager

Using AWS Secrets Manager to manage Mailgun Primary API Keys is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the Mailgun Primary API Key from AWS Secrets Manager.

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3. Code snippet to prevent Mailgun Primary API Key hardcoding using HashiCorp Vault

Using HashiCorp Vault for managing Mailgun Primary API Keys is a great way to enhance security. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages for securely handling a Mailgun Primary API Key using HashiCorp Vault.

Remember to replace the VAULT_ADDR and VAULT_TOKEN with your Vault server address and authentication token. The snippets assume that the Mailgun Primary API Key is stored under the api_key field within Vault. The specifics of the Vault path and field names should be adjusted to match your Vault setup.

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4. Code snippet to prevent Mailgun Primary API Key hardcoding using CyberArk Conjur

Using CyberArk Conjur to manage Mailgun Primary API Key is a secure way to handle sensitive data. Here are code snippets in five different programming languages that demonstrate how to retrieve the Mailgun Primary API Key from CyberArk Conjur.

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How to generate a Mailgun Primary API Key?

To generate a Mailgun Primary API Key, follow these steps:

  1. Log in to your Mailgun account.
  2. Go to the "Settings" section.
  3. Click on the "API Keys" tab.
  4. Under the "API Keys" section, click on the "Create New API Key" button.
  5. Enter a description for the API key (e.g., Primary API Key).
  6. Select the permissions for the API key (e.g., Full Access).
  7. Click on the "Create API Key" button.

Once you have completed these steps, your Mailgun Primary API Key will be generated and displayed. Make sure to securely store this API Key as it will be required to authenticate your application with the Mailgun API.

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My Mailgun Primary API Key leaked, what are the possible reasons?

There are several reasons why a Mailgun Primary API Key might have been leaked:

  • Improper storage: Storing the API key in plain text within code repositories or configuration files that are publicly accessible can lead to leaks.
  • Accidental exposure: Developers may inadvertently include the API key in logs, error messages, or other output that is visible to unauthorized users.
  • Compromised systems: If the systems or servers where the API key is stored are compromised, attackers may gain access to the key.
  • Shared credentials: Sharing API keys with unauthorized users or using the same key across multiple services increases the risk of leakage.

What are the risks of leaking a Mailgun Primary API Key

Leaking a Mailgun Primary API Key can pose serious risks to the security of your application and the data it processes. It is important for developers to understand the implications of such a leak in order to prevent potential security breaches. Here are some of the risks associated with leaking a Mailgun Primary API Key:

  • Unauthorized Access: An attacker who gains access to your Mailgun Primary API Key can send emails on your behalf, potentially leading to unauthorized access to sensitive information or the ability to send malicious content to your users.
  • Data Breach: If your Mailgun Primary API Key is leaked, it could be used to access and extract sensitive data from your Mailgun account, compromising the confidentiality and integrity of your data.
  • Financial Loss: Unauthorized access to your Mailgun account through a leaked API Key can result in financial losses, such as unauthorized charges for sending emails or exceeding usage limits.
  • Reputation Damage: A security breach resulting from a leaked Mailgun Primary API Key can damage the reputation of your organization, eroding trust with your customers and partners.

It is crucial to follow best practices for secret management and detection to prevent the leakage of sensitive information like API Keys. Always store API Keys securely, avoid hardcoding them in your code, and regularly monitor and rotate your keys to mitigate the risks of unauthorized access. Educating your team on the importance of safeguarding API Keys and implementing robust security measures is essential for maintaining the integrity and security of your applications.

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Mailgun Primary API Key security best practices

  • Avoid embedding the secret directly in your code. Instead, use environment variables or secrets managers‍
  • Secure storage: store the Mailgun Primary API Key in a secure location, such as a password manager or a secrets management service.
  • Regular rotation: periodically rotate the API key to minimize the risk of long-term exposure.
  • Restrict permissions: apply the principle of least privilege by only granting the key the minimum necessary permissions.
  • Monitor usage: regularly check the usage logs for any unusual activity or unauthorized access attempts.
  • Implement access controls: limit the number of users who have access to the secret and enforce strong authentication measures.
  • Use a secrets manager: utilize secret management tools like CyberArk or AWS Secrets Manager for enhanced security.

By adhering to the best practices, you can significantly reduce the risk associated with Mailgun Primary API Key usage and improve the overall security of your Mailgun Primary API Key implementations.

Exposing secrets on GitHub: What to do after leaking Credential and API keys

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Mailgun Primary API Key leak remediation: what to do

What to do if you expose a secret: How to stay calm and respond to an incident [cheat sheet included]

How to check if Mailgun Primary API Key was used by malicious actors

  • Review Access Logs: Check the access logs of your Mailgun Primary API Key account for any unauthorized access or unusual activity. Pay particular attention to access from unfamiliar IP addresses (if you haven’t set up a specific allow list) or at odd hours.
  • Monitor Usage Patterns: Look for anomalies in the usage patterns, such as unexpected spikes in data access or transfer.
  • Check Active Connections and Operations: Review the list of active connections and recent operations on your database. Unusual or unauthorized operations might indicate malicious use.
  • Audit API Usage: If possible, audit the usage of your API key through any logging or monitoring services you have integrated with Mailgun Primary API Key. This can give insights into any unauthorized use of your key.

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Steps to revoke the Mailgun Primary API Key

Generate a new Mailgun Primary API Key:

  • Log into your Mailgun Primary API Key account.
  • Navigate to the API section and generate a new API key.

Update Services with the new key:

  • Replace the compromised key with the new key in all your services that use this API key.
  • Ensure all your applications and services are updated with the new key before deactivating the old one.

Deactivate the old Mailgun Primary API Key:

  • Once the new key is in place and everything is functioning correctly, deactivate the old API key.
  • This can typically be done from the same section where you generated the new key.

Monitor after key rotation:

  • After deactivating the old key, monitor your systems closely to ensure that all services are running smoothly and that there are no unauthorized access attempts.

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How to understand which services will stop working

  • Inventory of services: keep an inventory of all services and applications that utilize your Mailgun Primary API Key.
  • Communication and documentation: Ensure that your team is aware of which services are dependent on the key. Maintain documentation for quick reference.
  • Testing: before deactivating the old key, test your services with the new key in a staging environment. This helps in identifying any services that might face issues post rotation.
  • Fallback strategies: Have a fallback or emergency plan in case a critical service fails after the key rotation. This might include temporary measures or quick rollback procedures.

In summary, the remediation process involves identifying potential misuse, carefully rotating the key, and ensuring minimal disruption to services. Being proactive and having a well-documented process can greatly reduce the risks associated with a compromised API key.

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What about other secrets?

GitGuardian helps developers keep 350+ types of secrets out of source code. GitGuardian’s automated secrets detection and remediation solution secure every step of the development lifecycle, from code to cloud:

  • On developer workstations with git hooks (pre-commit and pre-push);
  • On code sharing platforms like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket;
  • In CI environments (Circle CI, Travis CI, Jenkins CI, GitHub Actions, and many more);
  • In Docker images.

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Environment Variables
Environment Variables
Environment Variables

charge

nullable string

For card errors, the ID of the failed charge.

payment_method_type

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

doc_url

nullable string

A URL to more information about the error code reported.

request_log_url

nullable string

A URL to the request log entry in your dashboard.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

charge

nullable string

If the error is specific to the type of payment method, the payment method type that had a problem. This field is only populated for invoice-related errors.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

payment_intent

nullable object

The PaymentIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a PaymentIntent.

setup_intent

nullable object

The SetupIntent object for errors returned on a request involving a SetupIntent.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

Hide
Show
child attributes

type

enum

For some errors that could be handled programmatically, a short string indicating the error code reported.

CLIENT LIBRARIES

$ gem install stripe
$ pip install stripe
$ composer require stripe/stripe-php
MAVEN
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.stripe</groupId>
  <artifactId>stripe-java</artifactId>
  <version>24.16.0</version>
</dependency>

GRADLE
compile "com.stripe:stripe-java:24.16.0"
$ npm install --save stripe
$ go get github.com/stripe/stripe-go/v76
$ nuget install Stripe.net
SHOW
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